1st stop – Sigmund Freud Square
Let us start our educational tour with Příbor’s market square.
Shape of the square: Příbor’s market square was built on a plan of nearly regular square form, its four sides are copying geographic directions of the world. The first buildings forming town were wooden log cottages or so-called ‘pozemnice’. Only the parish church was made of stone. Many smaller streets and aisles were leading towards the square and the main trade route was crossing it. First stone houses were built to replace the wooden ones already in 15th century. The second stage of the construction of the town came along with Swedes, starting right after the town was burnt down by them, so it had to be rebuilt.
But according to words of Ferdinand Pokorný from the book “Příborský okres“ from 1917 – the shape and look of the square remained unchanged over the years; citation: the shape and form of the square was essentially the same since 1643. At that time all houses were built in brick and stone with archways, residential floors, ground floors and attics, simple classical facades and gabled roofs.
The arcades were originally surrounding the square on all sides. The north side was the first to have the archways converted into roofed spaces. It was said that the residents needed more space for doing business, so they were using ground floors of their homes for that purpose. The very first arcade to disappear was the one at the town house no. 27; today’s corner house on the north side of the square, looking directly to the north, then left. The side of that house shows signs of arches being walled-up, that’s the proof that earlier this was an arcade.
The entire square and the arcades were originally paved with river stones, forming different shapes and pictures on the ground. The pebble pavement is kept in its original form until today under the arcade of town houses no. 11 and 15 and around the statue of Virgin Mary.
Photo: Irena Nedomová, y. 2010
Central point of the market square: here stands the statue of Virgin Mary with Infant Jesus. It was unveiled and consecrated on the 14th of September, 1713.
Photo: Stanislava Slováková, r. 2013
The statue of Virgin Mary stands on a high double rectangular pedestal. Dressed in a pleated robe, she’s keeping Baby Jesus on her lap. Her left foot is resting on the globe. This sculptural group is protected with a conical stone balustrade.
On the right hand of the Virgin Mary statue there’s a statue of St. Roch. It stands on a pedestal, its sides are decorated with so-called volute wings. Roch is portrayed as a bareheaded man wearing a pilgrim’s robe, with a money pouch at his waist and a dog at his feet.
On the left hand of the Virgin Mary there’s St. Florian statue standing on an identical pedestal as the one of St. Roch. Florian is dressed in a Roman soldier’s armour; with his right hand he’s pouring water from a vessel over a burning house; in the other hand he’s holding a flag.
Legend of a statue of Virgin Mary in the market square:
In the years 1713 and 1714 there was a plague raging in Příbor. 30 to 40 people were dying every day. People were praying to St. Valentine, patron of the town, who had already saved Příbor once from Swedish invasion, to intercede with the Virgin Mary again. They promised that, if Virgin Mary will help them and stop the epidemics of “black death”, they will erect a statue to the glory of God’s mother in the market square. A solemn procession of citizens went through the town.
They were led by their priests. They walked along the streets praying, and the priests were sprinkling every doorstep with holy water. Their begging didn’t fall on a deaf ear- they were listened to by the Virgin Mary, who made the plague go away. The inhabitants of Příbor have gratefully fulfilled their promise and built a statue of their patron in the middle of the town square, decorated it with gold and added statues of St. Roch and St. Florian to it.
Source: Lubomír Loukotka, Příbor’s tales
So says the legend, but as Mr. Loukotka used to say, there had to be something wrong about it. And there was. According to the chronogram on the pedestal the sculpture of Virgin Mary with baby Jesus was sculpted on the 8th of September, 1713. It was consecrated on the 12th of October, 1713. But the plague affected Příbor in the years 1714 -1715.
How did it look like these days? Monthly magazine of town Příbor – November 2013
There is also a cast iron fountain located in the middle of the market square. It was installed in 1898 at the time of building the town’s water infrastructure, on the 50th anniversary of the reign of emperor Franz Joseph I. Before that, there was a stone fountain standing in the same place (from 1537). In the middle of the fountain there was a statue of St. Zachary from 1813. In 1899 the fountain was moved behind the parish church where it is standing until the present day. It has been renovated. Stones from the fountain were deposited at St. Valentine’s church and then reused for building the 22nd Infantry Regiment memorial, later renamed to Liberty memorial (28. 10. 1918). It stood at the road turn in front of the sokolovna (Sokol Hall). In the year 1928 it was moved near the wine cellar, where it was standing until the occupation. The monument was later destroyed (1938). Today the fountain is decorated with a silhouette of Hygeia.
Photo: State District Archive of Nový Jičín, fountain before year 1999 Photo: Municipal Office, Investments dept., year 1999 square reconstruction
The name of the market square
The first name of market place – Frant. Ladislav Riegr’s Square (a well-known Czech politician) was coming from 1910.
In 1932 members of Tělocvičná jednota Sokol (Eng. Sokol Gymnastics Unity) suggested renaming the square to: Dr. M. Tyrš’s Square, but the town council rejected that proposal.
On the 19th of October, 1938 German occupant forces have taken over the 5th border zone of the Republic and the square was renamed to Adolf Hitler Platz.
In 1945 that name was cancelled for obvious reasons and for the next 17 years the square went by the name of Stalin square. But as Stalin fell out of favour, in the years 1956-71 the square remained unnamed.
After that period market square name was restored to Stalin’s square once again by one of the members of municipal council. It remained so until 1989. In January, 1990 people of Příbor had a chance to decide themselves what name should be given to the square. In a questionnaire 40% of voters opted for Sigmund Freud Square. That name was given to the market square on the 22nd of January, 1990.
Town houses in the market square
Let’s have a brief look at the history of some of the Příbor’s town houses.
For better orientation: House no. 1 stands in the Politických vězňů Street on the left, past the church. Numbers on the buildings are growing direction west, which means towards the square.
Let’s start with the south wall of the market square.
Town house no. 5
In the years 1824 until 1838 the house was in possession of Příbor’s bourgeois, Provost Jan Sarkander Holouš.
Town house no. 6
In the year 1630 that house was owned by Tomáš Adler, a servant and butler of His Grace Prince Cardinal Fr. Dietrichštein. Cardinal had a special chapel at his house, where God’s mess was served by him on his visits to Příbor. In the early 50s of the 20th century his coat-of –arms was moved from the rear side of the building to its front, where it can be found today.
Town house no. 9
A fire, which in 1846 destroyed 16 houses in the market square and in Ř. Volného and in Nádražní Street started at that very house.
Town house no. 10
Andreas Staroweský, a Piarist and professor of the Litomyšl grammar school was born in that house in the year 1797. He has been described in a novel of A. Jirásek titled „Na staré poště“ (At the old post office).
Dr. Berthold Bretholz - director of the Provincial Archives in Brno was born in the same house in the year 1862.
Town house no. 11
The house is located opposite the town hall, at the main exit road. It is one of the most imposing buildings in the market square. Originally renaissance-styled building is decorated with sgraffito, best visible high up on the side of the house under the peeling-off plaster. A renaissance bay was preserved on that building.
In the years 1698 –1718 the house was probably owned by Fr. K. Knur, a provost and a painter. That leads to a conclusion that David Knauer (Knur) – his other name given to him at the order was ‘Heliodor’- was also born here in 1700. He became a rector of the Piarist College (1757) and was an author of renovation works done on St. Valentine’s church (1760–1766); he initiated building of a connecting corridor (cloister) between the church and the monastery.
A known painter from Kroměříž Antonín Wolný lived and in 1776 died in that house. He was an author of two large paintings of St. Isidore and St. Vendelín at the main altar of the parish church. People painted in the picture are said to be real Příbor inhabitants of those days, that means in 18th century. The parents of painter were coming from Příbor.
Another painter born in that house was Josef Ulrich (1815–1867), who studied at the Piarist grammar school in Příbor and later graduated from the Vienna Academy of Painting. In 1846 he painted a picture of St. Joseph with baby Jesus in his arms, which is framed with seven smaller paintings depicting Swedish aggression on Příbor in 1643. Today this painting hangs at St. Urbans chapel in the parish church.
In 1871 the owner of the house was Kasimir Knauer. In the ground floor there was a bar selling beer, wine and Leopold Kulka’s liquor; in 1891 it was an inn run by Fr. Ebel an afterwards, until the year 1918 the place used to be a hotel called Schöntal.
We leave the house with the number 11 crossing the road and using stairs we move towards the town hall and the house no. 19.
That way we’re getting to the west part of the market square.
Town hall is built at an altitude of 297 above the sea level.
Around the year 1600 the initial location of the town’s council was house no. 18. The town decided to annexe another house no. 17 to that address back in 1850. It has been bought from a widow Kateřina Grulichova (who happened to be the grandmother of Leoš Janáček, her daughter Amalia married a teacher Jiří Janáček and they had a son, Leos).
Another house which has been acquired by the town council was the building no. 19, the Rotter’s house. Police guards and the town’s museum were opened here (1912).
In those days, the town hall building was used by the district court, tax office and in the years 1896-1935 also by a post office and savings bank.
Original renaissance building of the town hall was demolished during November 1936. In 1937-38 a new town hall was built in functionalist style. The road leading to the square from west side was widened. The town hall was built on a place of houses no. 18 and no. 19 – today its address is number 19.
House no. 17 was demolished in order to expand the street. Original road was only 3, 20 meter wide.
More in the Monthly Magazine from 2012 - March
Photo: Příbor’s town archive, old town hall, beginning of the 20th century. Photo: Rudolf Jarnot, r. 2010
Town house no. 20
The ‘Politika Inn’ was located at that house; in the middle of 19th century it used to be a head quarter of the catholic-political society. That’s why the name ‘Politika’ was chosen for the inn. The house belonged to the Luleyov family.
In the years 1813–1839 there was a wooden shed standing in front of the house; it was used for storing water sprinklers because such thing as a fire service did not exist yet. Today the house has a bakery and a very popular patisserie in the ground floor.
Town house no. 25
This house stood behind no. 24 – Busek’s butchery. It used to be a jail.
Town house no. 26
This house does not exist anymore. It stood next to the number 27. At the no. 26 there was a very narrow aisle leading direction U Brany Street. The house no. 26 was standing on one side and on the other side there was house no. 49, called “Hell” or The Black Eagle Inn. After the inn was closed, the house has been bought by the Voluntary Fire Service. Their collection of books was stored in the building. A library has been opened there on the 12th of February, 1983. In 1920 the Voluntary Fire Service gave their books to town. That way the town’s library was created next door to the fire house.
Back to the house no. 26 – in 1904 that house was a smokehouse of Hajzer family. In 1916 the house was sold by them for 20 thousand crowns to the road committee under condition of being demolished, so that one more road which would lead to the market square could be built. The committee agreed upon it with the town and so a new street was built to replace the old narrow walkway in 1917.
Photo: archive of Příbor, r. 1916-1917 Photo: Jakub Nedoma, y. 2010
Now we’re smoothly moving onto the north side of the square
House no. 27
The military hospital, opened at Piarist College after the battle of Slavkova, was one of the hospitals treating wounded Russian soldiers. A Russian pharmacy has been opened at the town house no. 27 (1806).
It was the first house to have its arcades bricked-up. On the side of that house the arches of what used to be its arcade were still visible through a layer of plaster. It has been revealed during the reconstruction process in 1967.
House no. 28
This house belonged to Fr. Peřina, the mayor of the town in the years 1864-1867, 1873-1876, 1882 to 1900, and the provincial deputy. At the back of that building he had a winery called "The White Horse". It was a popular meeting point for Czechs. Mayor’s brother, Arnold, lived at the house no. 6. He had a winery there, too. But unlike Mr. Peřina’s wine bar, his brother’s winery was a place where the Germans used to meet.
In that house lived also Frederick Reims - a doctor and father of MD. Maurice Rheims.
A telegraph station was opened here on the 1st floor in 1865.
House no. 29
The house has been purchased and rebuilt from scratch by the Bata Shoe Company in the year 1929. Downstairs there was a shoe shop. The thorough architectonical change became one of the reasons why arcades couldn’t have been reconstructed on the north side of the square.
Photo: archive of Příbor, 1st Republic Photo: Rudolf Jarnot , y. 2010
House no. 30
It is located in the middle of the north side of the market square. It is the only house with a balcony. In 1862 the post office has been moved here from Mistecka Street (from the building, where "U Zlaté hvězdy" inn used to be). The postmaster Karel Golucký died in 1867 and the house was bought by Fr. Preissig. He won the tender for running the post office and became a new postmaster. He was the mayor of Příbor in the years 1868-3 and 1876-1882. Locals used to call him "prajzík".
In 1868 he extended this building by adding another floor to it, where he then moved the telegraph station to (from house no. 28). The post office at this house operated until 1896.
As the state post office required more space, it must have been moved from the house no. 30 to the old town hall building.
Next, the house was bought and refurbished by the Družstvo Národního domu (Eng. National Society House). A hotel called “Národní dům” has been opened here in October 1897.
In 1918 the house has been purchased by a lawyer JUDr. A. Vaněk. On the 29th of October, 1918 a solemn speech was given by the principal of Grammar School Mr. Jaroslav Simonides from the balcony of the National House to celebrate the declaration of the Czechoslovak Republic.
The restaurant and hotel were closed down in the 30s of the 20th century.
Photo: archive of Příbor, 1st Republic Photo: Pavel Nedoma, r. 2010
House no. 31
In the mid-19th century the place used to be an inn. Since 1910 it belonged to the family of Aug. Hajzer.
House no. 32
Salamon Werner Inn. In 1848 last arcade was walled-up here.
This house was a home to the long-time town’s chronicler Mgr. Lubomír Loukotka
(* 1928 † 2011).
House no. 33
Birthplace of MD. Maurice Rheims (* 1867).
From 1871 it used to be a pub, in 1891 it became Vilém Bock’s guesthouse, around 1900 the place was a hotel called “U Jelena” (Zum Hirsch) and it belonged to Antonín Přidal. Afterwards, from 1911 it used to be hotel Hlubík. The house was rebuilt shortly after 1950.
House no. 34
Birthplace of the poet and interpreter Augen Stoklasa (* 1882). Earlier than that it used to be an inn and later, probably from 1900, a hotel called Kladiva.
After the WW2 the hotel was closed but the restaurant was still working. In the late 50s of the 20th century the restaurant was eventually closed, too.
The house fell into a deplorable state. It threatened to collapse, and so had to be completely reconstructed. In the years 1968-1970 the building was turned into today’s Slavia restaurant.
House no. 35
It is the last house on the north side of the market place. It stands on the corner of the square and Místecká Street. In the 17th century the house was a coaching inn. In the years 1784 to 1785 an "imperial road" was built across our region. It was leading from Vienna to Krakow and there were new post offices being opened along the way.
Our district had its post offices in Příbor and Novy Jičín. The Příbor’s post office was located in this very building. Mr. Antonin Netter was its first postmaster. The post office existed here until 1835, when the grandson of Mr. Netter moved it to the "U Zlaté hvězdy" inn.
In the years 1902-1903 the house was bought by the Výpomocná pokladnice - a financial institution. On their initiative in 1904-1905 the house was thoroughly rebuilt by Bedřich Karlseder at the cost of 70000 Czech crowns. As a result of that reconstruction, a new beautiful palatial house emerged. It started being called ‘the palace’.
Photo: archive of Příbor, Lubomir Loukotka Photo: Pavel Nedoma, r. 2010
Now we go to the east side of the square
House no. 41
On the facade there is a relief of canonized Jan Sankander (1576-1620). He moved to Příbor together with his mother in 1587 to live at their uncle’s. In the years 1587-1590 he probably attended Příbor’s parish school. The house still has Sarkander’s parlour. A relief located in the frontal part of the town house is a copy from 1992. The original piece can be found at the Příbor’s museum.
House no. 43
It belonged to Ant. Etzl, father of the poor and town mayor in the years 1809 to 1823.
In 1885 Příbor’s first kindergarten was opened here. It was called Metodějka. Around the year 1900 it was moved to no. 19 (town hall).
House no. 45
On the 15th of July 1766 Emperor Joseph II. stayed here overnight on his way to Russia. He was travelling with generals Lasey and Laudon and with counts Dietrichstein, Nostitz and Colloredo. The house belonged to merchant Schulz. On the way back, the emperor spent the night at the same house.
Probably since 1880 this house together with no. 44 was owned by the German Reserve Vorschussverein (est. 1867).
In 1947 MNS bought the house and in the 90s of the 20th century the town sold it to a private person. Houses still haven’t been fully reconstructed. Only the roofs were fixed on them.
House no. 47
The house belonged to Ant. Etzlovi - see no. 43. His grave is located on the south side of the parish church’s wall.
House no. 48
It is the longest house in the square, it stretches up right to the parish church.
In the years 1694-1700 pupils of Piarist grammar school have been studying here.
Later, the owner of the house was Frant. Wuschke – town mayor between 1906-1919 and a wholesaler.
This number is the last one in the square. -No. 49 - see no. 26 – stood in U Brany Street; and no. 50 is Piarist monastery!